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For each pixel,

 Intensity of light = gray level in gray scale images.

This is essentially the analogy in image analysis of the luminance [1] in optics. It runs between 0 and 255.

For image analysis, we don't look at individual pixels anymore. The gray level within the object (see Objects in gray scale images) .

 The intensity of a dark object is the lowest level of gray within it.  
 The intensity of a light object is the highest level of gray within it. 

For example, rectangle #1 has intensity 0 (black). The intensity of rectangle #5 is 255 (white).

For objects the intensity is computed as the average gray and displayed in the Pixcavator's output table.

See also Measuring objects for other characteristics of objects.

To see how this can be applied, browse our numerous image analysis examples.

Compare to Optical density.